DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ACTIVE AND PASSIVE IMMUNITY

Immunity is one of the biggest assets of human lives as it protects from various infections. Though you might have already known about it, the recent worldwide spread of deadly coronavirus would have increased your awareness of the immunity power. Over the past year, there have always been talks on boosting the immune system to stay safe from COVID-19 infection. In the previous blog, we had mentioned types of immunity, including active and passive immunity. So, here we enlighten you on what is active and passive immunity, and how it can be acquired and boosted.

Types of Immunity

Immunity of a human body is of two broad types:

Innate Immunity: In-born immunity present right from birth. It is your body’s natural immune response.
Acquired Immunity: Acquired during the lifetime on exposure to pathogens, vaccines and infections. It involves making the immune system of the body aware of the pathogen and train it to fight against that germ. Acquired immunity is further classified into active immunity and passive immunity.
Active immunity: Active immunity is the immunity developed in the body by the antibodies created inside the body.
Passive Immunity: Passive immunity is the immunity developed by the antibodies created outside the body.

Active Immunity

When your body comes in contact with a pathogen, B cells that are a type of white blood cells in the body produce antibodies that destroy or neutralize the disease-causing pathogen. The antibody produced protects only against a specific disease whose source of germ it has encountered. Also, when the B cell encounters a pathogen, they create memory cells along with the antibodies. These memory cells recognize and keep track of the pathogen. These memory cells stay alive in the body for long, and when that same pathogen invades again, they recognize it and release antibodies to kill that pathogen. Thus immunological memory gets activated for recognition of the repeated attack by the same pathogen. Active immunity s developed in the following two ways.
  1. Natural Immunity on Getting Infected

    When infected by a disease, your immune system recognizes the germ causing the disease and storing the details in the memory cells. This immunity developed attacks the germ on encountering it again. For example, when you get infected with chickenpox, your body develops immunity against it, and hence you do not get infected by this disease in future.

  2. Vaccine-Induced Immunity

    The recent worldwide spread of coronavirus surged the demand for a vaccine against it. Now when you get vaccinated against this virus, your body develops antibodies against the virus. A vaccine is nothing but an injection that injects a dead or weakened form of the pathogen into your body for your immune system to recognize it and attack it and kill it if it comes in contact with the body in future. Vaccination is one of the best methods to protect large groups of people from an epidemic or a pandemic. Hence get vaccinated for coronavirus at the earliest.

Passive Immunity

Passive immunity is induced by developing antibodies outside the body. Though this immunity does not last long, it helps provide immunity for a temporary period. Passive immunity is also acquired in one of the two below-mentioned ways.
  1. Maternal immunity

    It is one of the natural forms of passive immunity acquired by the new-born child from its mother. The antibodies are passed through the placenta from the mother to the child before birth. After birth, the transfer of immunity gets facilitated through the mother’s milk.

  2. Immunity from antibodies of another person

    When an infected person cures the disease, the antibodies from that person are taken and injected into another person. Thus the antibodies are created in another person and then injected into your body.

Active immunity lasts longer and even for a lifetime, but passive immunity is just short-term protection. Memory cells get deployed in active immunity compared to their absence in passive immunity.
This would have given you a clear idea of the different types of immunity and how you can stay immune from various germs and infections. Also, to stay safe, you must wear personal protective equipment. Visit https://www.ppezones.com to purchase top-quality face mask, isolations gowns, bouffant caps and GClean sanitizer wipes.

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